Colibri Consulting

certification for sustainable development

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Michael E. Conroy

Current position:

  Co-founder and Co-director:

  Colibrí Consulting -- Certification for Sustainable Development

  Austin, Texas & Oaxaca, Mexico


  Date of birth: June 29, 1943

  Place of birth: Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

  Texas residence at: 503 Cater Drive, Austin TX 78704-1411

  Texas landline: +1-512-326-1456

  Global mobile: +1-914-374-0631

  Texas fax: +1-512-707-0790

  Oaxaca residence at: Camino al Seminario #85, San Pablo Etla 68200, Oaxaca, México

  Oaxaca landline: +52-951-520-4020

  Oaxaca faxline: +52-951-520-4203

Summary Professional Experience:

• Ph.D. economist with 25 years of teaching experience in development economics, at the University      of Texas at Austin, with a specialty in Latin American Economics, Urban and Regional Economics, and the Economics of Sustainable Development

• Nine years of experience as a funder, at the Ford Foundation, for the development of certification systems for improved social and environmental practices, including active support for the Forest Stewardship Council, TransfairUSA, development of the Sustainable Tourism Stewardship Council, and participation in the early stages of the development of standards for the responsible sourcing of minerals.

• Three years of subsequent research and teaching at Yale University on the development of social and environmental certification systems and their impacts upon corporate accountability.

• Three overlapping years at the Rockefeller Brothers Fund as Director of the Global Governance Portfolio within the Democratic Practice Program.

• Retired from the salaried world on January 1, 2007 in order to dedicate my time to largely pro-bono work on building certification systems for sustainable development


B.A. with Honors in Economics and Latin American Studies; Tulane University, 1968.

M.S. in Economics; The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1971.

Ph.D. in Economics; The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1972.

Second Languages:

Fully fluent in Spanish, working proficiency in Portuguese.

Selected board positions held:

• TransFair USA., Oakland, CA; September 2004 to present. Currently Board Chair of this U.S. nonprofit organization focused on developing Fair Trade certification in the U.S.; member of the board’s Executive Committee, Fundraising Committee, and NGO Relations Task Force.

• EarthWorks, Inc., Washington DC; June 2003 to present. Elected to the board of this international nonprofit organization focused on developing new global standards for social and environmental practices in the mining sector.

• Forest Stewardship Council Global Fund, Inc., New York NY; 2001 to present. Co-founder and initial Board Chair of this global nonprofit designed to raise and channel funding for the world’s most successful example of advocacy-led certification for corporate social and environmental responsibility.

• Forest Stewardship Council, Bonn, Germany; 2005 to present. Appointed technical advisor and member of the FSC international board.

• Center for Ecotourism and Sustainable Development, Washington DC and Stanford CA; May 2006 to present; member of the founding board of this research-oriented nonprofit focused on promoting certified sustainable ecotourism.

• Environmental Grantmakers Association, New York NY; 2000-2003. Elected board member in 2000 and board chair in 2001 of this nonprofit that is the world’s largest association of foundations and other funders focused primarily on environmental issues.

Formal Employment History:

2003 to 2006

Yale University, School of Forestry and Envronmental Studies

Senior Lecturer and Senior Research Scholar (part time)

July 1, 2003 to to June 30, 2006

Funded research agenda included:

•  New analysis of forms of corporate social responsibility led by advocacy groups and involving stakeholder-based negotiated global standards, including forestry, eco-tourism, sustainable agriculture, mining, certified fair trade, and corporate finance sectors.

• New analysis of the links between current forms of globalization and poverty alleviation, including development of the “positive alternatives” to current theory and practice.

Teaching agenda included:

• Seminar on Forest Certification

• Seminar on Markets, Social and Environmental Certification, and Corporate Accountability


Rockefeller Brothers Fund

Program Officer for Global Governance (part-time),

January 2004 to December 2006.

Principal responsibility: Managing a grant portfolio focused on improving democratic practice in global governance, including work in the following areas:

• Improving the governance of the global institutions of trade and development;

• Improving the governance of the global commons; and

• Improving global governance of multinational corporations.


Ford Foundation, Mexico City and New York

     1998-2003: Program Officer (Senior Program Officer after October 2000) in the Ford Foundation’s New York headquarters office

     • Program development and management in the field of Environment and Development, focused on three initiatives:

          • Asset building in community-based forests (1998-2001): Development of a new national demonstration program on community forestry in the U.S. in which 12 projects that exemplified innovative community-based forestry were selected through an RFP for 5 years of funding, convening, and technical support; the principal goal was to demonstrate that local communities can manage public lands wisely and that this alternative could serve as a poverty-alleviating solution for the standoff between the USDA Forest Service and environmental groups.

          • Certification for natural resource management: Development of a wide array of support for the Forest Stewardship Council as the premier example of advocacy-led market-based mechanisms for transforming corporate practices in natural resource industries; later extended to certification of Fair Trade coffee, sustainable agriculture, ecotourism, and (in incipient fashion) mining.

          • Globalization, environment, and communities (2001-2003): Exploratory development of a new initiative designed to strengthen the voices of local communities and local elected officials in deliberations around -- and implementation of -- international trade and environmental agreements

     • Grantmaking averaged $6 million per year and was highlighted by multi-foundation collaboration; frequent presentations to academic, NGO, and industrial audiences on the rationale and evolving results of the major components of the work; and recognized leadership among other grantmakers of related collaborative funder affinity groups.

     1994 – 1998: Program Officer in the Ford Foundation’s Office for Mexico and Central America

          • Program development and management in the field of Rural Poverty and Resources, working along the U.S.-Mexico border, in Southern and Southeastern Mexico, and throughout Central America

          • Project leader (in collaboration with colleagues in the foundation’s New York office) for a new Central America Initiative that sought to strengthen the implementation of the Central American Alliance for Sustainable Development, signed in 1994 by all five Central American presidents, which provided for integrated approaches to social, environmental, economic, and human rights issues for the first time since the era of civil conflict in the region.

          • Grantmaking averaged $3 million per year and was focused on community forestry, Fair Trade marketing of coffee from the region, improved management of water resources, and bilateral solutions to cross-border environmental problems along the U.S.-Mexico border.

The University of Texas at Austin

Professor of Economics and Latin American Studies

• Research agendas reflected in publications list attached.

• Graduate and undergraduate teaching included:

          • Global Economics of Sustainable Development

          • Latin American Political and Economic Development

          • Seminar on Globalization and Industrial Development

          • Economics thru the Lens of Race and Gender

Other Academic Positions of National Recognition

1993-1996 Founding member of the Executive Board, the Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association (LACEA).

1992-1995 Member of the Executive Council and Treasurer, the Latin American Studies Association (LASA).

1989-1991 Chair, Program Committee, XVI International Congress, Latin American Studies Association, Washington DC (March 1991).

1990 Member, Latin American Studies Association Delegation of Official Observers to the 1990 Nicaraguan Elections

1988-1990 Chair, Social Science Research Council's Central America Working Group.

1988 Co-chair, Latin American Studies Association International Commission on Compliance with the Central American Peace Accords.

1987-1991 Member, Social Science Research Council's screening committee for dissertation grants in the Latin American area.

1986-present Member of the National Board of Directors of the Center for Cuban Studies, New York City.

1985-1993 Member, National Board of Directors of PACCA (Policy Alternatives for the Caribbean and Central America).

1985-1987 Creator and Co-editor, LASA-NICA Scholars News, monthly international newsletter of the LASA Task Force on Scholarly Relations with Nicaragua.

1983-1987 Member, and then Chair, LASA Task Force on Scholarly Relations with Nicaragua.


Recent Papers and Presentations:

(with Stephanie Barrientos and Elaine Jones) “Northern Social Movements and Fair Trade,” Chapter 4 in Fair Trade: The Challenges of Transforming Globalization, edited by Laura T. Raynolds, Douglas Murray, and John Wilkinson; London and New York: Routledge, 2007.

(with Ann Grodnik) “Fair Trade Coffee in the United States: Why Companies Join the Movement,” Chapter 6 in Fair Trade: The Challenges of Transforming Globalization, edited by Laura T. Raynolds, Douglas Murray, and John Wilkinson; London and New York: Routledge, 2007.

“Certification Systems as Tools for Building Natural Assets: Potential, Experiences to Date, and Critical Challenges,” Chapter 18 in Reclaiming Nature: Environmental Justice and Ecological Restoration, edited by James K. Boyce, Elizabeth Stanton and Sunita Narain; London: Anthem Press, 2006.

(with Amy Glasmeier) “Globalization: Faustian Bargain or More of the Same,” Chapter 13 in Remaking the Global Economy: Economic-Geographical Perspectives, edited by Jamie A. Peck and Henry Wai-Chung Yeung; New York: Rusell Sage Foundation, 2003.

“Certification Systems for Sustainable Tourism and Ecotourism: Can They Transform Social and Environmental Practices?” Chapter 3 in Ecotourism and Certification: Setting Standards in Practice, edited by Martha Honey. Washington DC: Island Press, 2002.

“Taming the Genie: What Limits for Certification Institutions?” Paper presented at the Colloquium on Certification Institutions and Private Governance, Duke University Law School, December 2001 (

“Can Advocacy-Led Certification Systems Transform Global Corporate Behavior? Theory and Some Evidence.” Working Paper #21 of the Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; September 2001 (

(With Sarah Elizabeth West) “The Impact of NAFTA and the WTO on Chiapas and Southern Mexico: Hypotheses and Preliminary Evidence,” in Poverty of Development: Global Restructuring and Regional Transformation in the U.S. South and the Mexican South, edited by Richard Tardanico and Mark B. Rosenberg. New York: Routledge, 2000.

(With Manuel Pastor) “Distributional Implications of Macroeconomic Policy: Theory and Applications to El Salvador,” in Economic Policy for Building Peace: The Lessons of El Salvador, edited by James K. Boyce. Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1996. Reprinted as “Repercusiones de la política macroeconómica en la distribución: teoría y aplicación a El Salvador,” in Ajuste hacia la paz: La política económica y la reconstrucción de posguerra en El Salvador. Mexico City: Plaza y Valdez, S.A. de C.V., 1999.

Monographs and Edited Volumes:

Branded! How the ‘Certification Revolution’ Is Transforming Global Corporations, a monograph based on three years of research at Yale University, funded by the Ford Foundation, examining the intersection of rising civil society demands for corporate accountability, increasingly powerful market campaigns to challenge the brands of corporations, and the emergence of certification systems for social and environmental standards as a well-accepted solution by global corporations. Vancouver and London: New Society Publishers, September 1, 2007. [PDF copy available upon request.]

(with Peter Rosset and Douglas Murray, co-authors): A Cautionary Tale: U.S. Development Policy in Central America, a monograph developed from a two-year project, funded by the Ford Foundation, examining critically the problems created for five Central American countries by their increasing dependence on nontraditional agricultural exports. Boulder: Lynn Rienner Publishers, 1995.

(with Werner Baer, co-editor): Latin America: Privatization, Property Rights, and Deregulation I. Proceedings of the Fall 1992 conference of the Latin America 2000 Project. Special Issue of the Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance. Greenwich CT: JAI Press Inc., 1993.

(with Werner Baer, co-editor): Latin America: Privatization, Property Rights, and Deregulation II. Proceedings of the Fall 1993 conference of the Latin America 2000 Project. Special Issue of the Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance. Greenwich CT: JAI Press Inc., 1994.

Nicaragua: Profiles of the Revolutionary Public Sector, Editor, and author of one of seven essays. A book based upon the 1986 University of Texas Nicaragua Public Sector Research Project, funded by the Ford Foundation. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987.

(with Norman V. Walbeck, co-editor): Conflict, Peace and Order in the Americas. A volume of commissioned background papers prepared for the Conference on Conflict Order, and Peace in the Americas, November 1976, at the University of Texas at Austin. Austin: L.B.J. School of Public Affairs, The University of Texas, 1978.

Regional Economic Diversification. An original theoretical presentation and empirical exploration of the use of portfolio theory to relate industrial composition in U.S. metropolitan areas to their historical relative employment instability. New York: Praeger, 1975.

The Challenge of Urban Economic Development. A survey of critical issues and examination of the state-of-the-art on urban economic development strategies, based on an NSF-RANN research project. Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1975.

Refereed Articles:

(With Amy Glasmeier) "Unprecedented Disparities, Unparalleled Adjustment Needs: Winners and Losers on the NAFTA Fast Track," Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs (Vol. 34, Number 4; Winter 1992-93), pp. 1-37.

(With Amy Glasmeier) "Winners and Losers on the NAFTA 'Fast Track,'" The Aspen Institute Quarterly (Vol. 4, No. 4, Autumn 1992), pp. 78-97.

"The Political Economy of the 1990 Nicaraguan Elections," International Journal of Political Economy (Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1990), pp. 5-33.

"External Dependence, External Assistance, and Economic Aggression Against Nicaragua," Latin American Perspectives (Issue 45, Vol. 12, No. 2, Spring 1985), pp. 39-67.

"False Polarization? Differing Perspective on the Economic Strategies of Post-Revolutionary Nicaragua," Third World Quarterly (Vol. 6, No. 4, October 1984), pp. 993-1032.

"Global Crisis and the Latin American Backlash: Implications for U.S. Business, " Texas Business Review (May-June 1983), pp. 33-47.

"Las Migraciones a las Areas Rurales en Colombia: Un Análisis Exploratorio de los Flujos Contrarios" `[Migration to Rural Areas of Colombia: An Exploratory Analysis of Crossflows], Migración y Desarrollo 5 (1980): 198-230.

"El Crecimiento Económico y Cambios en la Estructura de la Población" [Economic Growth and Changes in the Structure of the Population], Revista Centroamericana de Economía, (1, 2 & 3) (January-May 1980): 9-37.

"Population Growth, Life-Cycle Saving, and International Differences in Steady-State Optimal Saving Rates," Demography 16: 3 (August 1979): 425-438.

(With K. Roberts, A. King, and J. Rizo-Patron) "Counting Illegal Mexican Aliens: Myths and Misconceptions, " Texas Business Review 53: 6 (June 1978): 101-105.

"The Concept and Measurement of Regional Industrial Diversification, Southern Economic Journal, 41: 3 (January 1975): 492-505.

"Recent Research in Economic Demography Related to Latin America: A Critical Survey and an Agenda," Latin American Research Review, 9: 2 (Summer 1974): 3-27.

"Alternative Strategies for Regional Industrial Diversification," Journal of Regional Science 14: 1 (April 1974): 31-46.

"The United Nations Research Series on Regional Development: A Review Article," Growth and Change, 5: 1 (January 1974): 47-50.

"Rejection of 'Growth Center' Strategies in Latin American Regional Development Planning," Land Economics, 49: 4 (November 1973): 371-80.

Other Chapters of Books:

"Strategic Global Economic Imperatives and the North American Free Trade Agreement," in Redefining Mutual Security in the New Global Economy: The United States, Mexico, and the North American Free Trade Agreement, edited by Bruce Bagley and Sergio Aguayo (Miami: University of Miami Press, 1993).

(With María Verónica Frenkel, Gregg Vunderink, and Richard Stahler-Sholk) "The Nicaraguan Economic Experiment: An Annotated Bibliography and Review Essay," Chapter 2, pp. 7-46, in D. Neil Snarr, editor, Sandinista Nicaragua: An Annotated Bibliography with Analytical Introductions, Part 2: Economy, Politics and Foreign Policy. Ann Arbor: Pierian Press - Resources on Contemporary Issues Series, 1990.

(With Manuel Pastor, Jr.) "The Nicaraguan Experiment: Characteristics of a New Economic Model," in Nora Hamilton, et al., editors. Crisis in Central America: Regional Dynamics and U.S. Policy in the 1980s. Boulder: Westview Press, 1988.

"'Economic Aggression' as an Instrument of Low-Intensity Warfare" in Thomas A. Walker, editor, Reagan vs. the Sandinistas: The Undeclared War on Nicaragua. Boulder: Westview Press, 1988.

(With Rolf Pendall) "Internal Migration, War, and the Regional Outreach of the Nicaraguan State," Chapter 4 in Nicaragua: Profiles of the Revolutionary Public Sector, edited by Michael E. Conroy. Boulder: Westview Press, August 1987.

"Patterns of Changing External Trade in Revolutionary Nicaragua: Voluntary and Involuntary Diversification," pp. 169-194 in Rose J. Spalding, editor, The Political Economy of Revolutionary Nicaragua. New York: Allen and Unwin, 1986. Also published as “Pautas del Cambiante Comercio Exterior de la Nicaragua Revolucionaria: Diversificación Voluntaria e Involuntaria del Comercio,” in La economía política de la Nicaragua revolucionaria. Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1989.

"Economic Legacy and Policies: Performance and Critique," Chapter 10, pp. 219-244 in Thomas A. Walker, editor, Nicaragua: The First Five Years. New York: Praeger Special Studies, 1985.

(With Nancy R. Folbre) "Population Growth as a Deterrent to Economic Growth: A Reappraisal of the Evidence," Chapter 5, pp. 113-170 in Ethical Issues of Population Aid: Culture, Economics, and International Assistance, edited by Daniel Callahan and Phillip G. Clark, New York: Irvington Publishers, Inc., 1981.

(With Kathleen Kelleher and Rodrigo I. Villamizar) "The Role of Population Growth in Third World Theories of Underdevelopment," Chapter 6, pp. 171-206, in Ethical Issues of Population Aid: Culture, Economics, and International Assistance, edited by Daniel Callahan and Phillip G. Clark. New York: Irvington Publishers, Inc., 1981.

"Toward a Policy-Oriented Theory of the Economy of Cities in Latin America," in Current Perspective on Urban Research in Latin America, Alejandro Portes and Harley L. Browning, editors. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976.

"U.S. Economic Policy Toward Latin America: Imperialism, Altruism, or Egalitarianism": in Latin American-United States Economic Interactions: Conflict, Accommodation, and Policies for the Future, edited by Robert B. Williamson, William P. Glade and Karl M. Schmitt. Washington: American Enterprise Institute, 1974.

Professional Reports:

(With E. Walter Coward, Jr., and Melvin L. Oliver) Building Natural Assets: Re-thinking the Centers’ Natural Resources Agenda and Its Links to Poverty Alleviation, Centro Internacional para la Agricultura Tropical (CIAT); a paper produced for and distributed after the CIAT Conference on Assessing the Impact of Agricultural Research on Poverty Alleviation, September 14-16, 1999, San Jose, Costa Rica.

The Challenge for Economic Geography of Defining, Creating, and Defending ‘Sustainable Communities, Report for the National Science Foundation Workshop on the Future of Economic Geography, Washington D.C., September 22-25, 1996.

(With Amy Glasmeier), Global Squeeze: The Challenges and the Threats of NAFTA, GATT, and Globalization Processes for Rural America, Report of the National Conference on NAFTA, GATT, and their Impact on Rural America, Washington DC, October 1993. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University, August 1994.

(With Peter Cleaves and Werner Baer) Forging a New Latin America: Preliminary Lessons on Privatization, Deregulation, and Changing Property Rights, Report of the Latin America 2000 Project, co-authored with Werner Baer and Peter S. Cleaves; a summary report from the November 1992 Latin America 2000 Conference on Privatization, Deregulation, and Property Rights, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (University of Texas, Institute of Latin American Studies, March 1993).

"Past Meets Future: Texas and Latin America in the 21st Century," Texas and the World: The Future of Texas Links to the International Community, edited by Gordon Bennett. A report commissioned by the Texas Commission on the Humanities. Reprinted in the Texas Papers on Latin America, No. 89-06.

(With Charles Stansifer, et al.) Extraordinary Opportunities...and New Risks, Final Report of the LASA Commission on Compliance with the Central America Peace Accord, LASA Forum (Spring 1988).

(With Wayne A. Cornelius, et al.) The Electoral Process in Nicaragua: Domestic and International Influences, The Report of the Latin American Studies Association Delegation to Observe the Nicaraguan General Election of November 4, 1984 (Austin: The Latin American Studies Association, December 1984)


(With Melba Luz Zúñiga and Celina Kawas Castillo) Ingreso, Gasto, Barrio y Familia: Las Estrategias de los Pobladores de Barrios de Ingresos Bajos en Tegucigalpa [Income, Expenditure, Neighborhood and Family: Strategies of the Residents of Low Income Neighborhoods in Tegucigalpa]. Report to the Office of Urban Development, U.S.A.I.D. Tegucigalpa, Honduras: ASEPADE, 1982, 387 pages.

(With Paul A. Richardson, Frank D. Bean, and Alberto Hernández G.) Female Status, Sociodemographic Context and Fertility in Colombia: A Regional Cross-Section Analysis. Report to the Office of Population, U.S.A.I.D. (Austin: Population Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, August 1980), 202 pp.

(With Mario Coria Salas and Felipe Vila González) Socioeconomic Incentives for Migration from Mexico to the U.S.: Magnitude, Recent Changes, and Policy Implications. Report to the U.S. Department of State. Austin: The Institute of Latin American Studies (July 1980), 153 pp.

Urbanization, Internal Migration and Spatial Policy in Colombia. Report No. 1154-CO of the World Bank (June 10, 1976), 95 pp.

Potential Migration Effects of a Direct Cash Assistance Program for Housing (With contribution by Stephen K. Mayo). A report to the Department of Housing and Urban Development (Abt Associates, Inc. Cambridge, Mass., December 1974), 91 pp.

The Challenge of Urban Economic Development: An Evaluation of Policy-Related Research on Alternative Goals for the Economic Structure of Cities. Report to the National Science Foundation (The Center for Economic Development, University of Texas at Austin, July 1974), 443 pp., NTIS Publication PS-239364/AS, 12/74.

Journals Refereed

Demography, Journal of Regional Science, International Migration Review, Latin American Perspectives, Latin American Research Review, Third World Quarterly, Social Science Quarterly, Journal of Comparative Politics, Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs.

Major Grants Received:

From the Ford Foundation (through Yale University), $500,000 for research and teaching in the field of social and environmental certification and corporate accountability; October 2003 through June 2006.

From the Ford Foundation (through the Aspen Institute, Washington DC), in collaboration with Amy K. Glasmeier [Pennsylvania State University], $115,000 for a conference on "Globalization, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and Their Impact on Rural Development Prospects in the United States," administered by Penn State University; January - December 1993.

From the Ford Foundation, The North South Center, and the Tinker Foundation (collaboratively with Peter Cleaves, University of Texas, and Werner Baer, University of Illinois), a total of $220,000 for a series of conferences on "Privatization, Regulation, and Property Rights in Latin America"; January 1992 to December 1993.

From the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Pew Memorial Trust (collaboratively with Edgar Gutiérrez of AVANCSO-Guatemala and Beatriz Manz of the University of California-Berkeley, a total of $230,000 for research into the "Ecological Dilemmas of Non-traditional Agricultural Exports in Guatemala"; administered by PACCA (Policy Alternatives for the Caribbean and Central America), Washington DC; January 1992-June 1993.

From the Ford Foundation, $100,000 for a research project entitled "Deepening the Crisis? An Evaluation of USAID Non-traditional Agricultural Export Strategies in Central America," April 1990 to October 1991.

As Director of the Research Support Development Program of the Institute of Latin American Studies, responsible for the development, writing, and submission of proposals to the National Endowment for the Humanities and the U.S. Department of Education that brought grants totaling more than $600,000 between September 1986 and August 1988.

From the Ford Foundation, $50,000 for a research program on the evolution of the Nicaraguan public sector, in collaboration with the Institute of Latin American Studies' Office of Public Sector Studies; May 1986 to January 1987.

From various foundations, including Ford, Arca, J. Roderick MacArthur, and others, more than $300,000 for the creation and staffing of the Central America Resource Center, a private nonprofit national information clearinghouse on Central America, established in 1983 in Austin; February 1983 to October 1985.

From the Office of Urban Development, USAID (in collaboration with Melba Luz Zúñiga and Celina Kawas [ASEPADE, Honduras]), support totaling $245,000 for a study of the income dynamics of the urban poor in Tegucigalpa; January 1980 to August 1982.

From the National Science Foundation, $17,500 for estimation, adjustment and sensitivity analysis of the model of internal migration and development in Colombia, September 1979 to February 1982.

From the Ford and Rockefeller Special Program on Internal Migration in Developing Countries (in collaboration with Alvaro Reyes [CCRP; Bogotá, Colombia]), $37,500 for a study of "the comparative dynamics of internal migration in Colombia," February 1979 to August 1980.

From the Office of Population, A.I.D. (in collaboration with Frank L. Bean and Alberto Hernández), $75,022 for a regional/microanalytic analysis of the determinants for fertility in Colombia; September 1977 to February 1979.

From the Office of External Research, U.S. Department of State (in collaboration with Robert Malina, Henry Selby, and Kenneth Roberts), $104,000 for analyses of "push factors in migration from Mexico to the United States"; October 1978 to September 1979.

From NIH (NICHD): $51,700 for research on macroeconomic effects of internal migration in Colombia; July 1975 to June 1977.

From the Interdisciplinary Communications Program of the Smithsonian Institution (in collaboration with Harley L. Browning and Domingo-Rivarola), $30,141 for initial research on the demographic and socioeconomic consequences upon Paraguay of the ITAIPU and YACI-RETA-APIPE hydro-electric projects; August 1975 to June 1976.

From NSF-RANN (in collaboration with Niles M. Hansen), $93,600 for research into systems for effecting controlled municipal growth and development; June 1973 to July 1974. From the Governmental Affairs Institute (for the Department of State), (in collaboration with William P. Glade); $10,000 for a Conference on "Economic Relations between Mexico and the United States," April 9-16, 1972.